caractériser un texte
The statement is what is said or written.
The statement is the set of processes that reveal the presence of the issuer of the statement or utterer right inside his statement.
We are used to rank the statements into two types: the discourse and narrative .
|AncréÉnoncé statements, whether written or oral, in which the speaker refers to the act of enunciation: who the speakers, place and time of utterance (deictic or clutches 1), Attitude interlocutors … to enter or stay in touch. These references are not interpreted by the interlocutors.||CoupéÉnoncé statement, written or oral, in which references to the speaker or the act of enunciation are absent.|
Speaking, writing always respond to a project, an intention. Communication, which is to go out of oneself to the other, follows a utilitarian aim. In everyday life, sign language or vocalized speech seek to transmit information necessary for the maintenance of life and adaptation of the living organism to its environment. The linguist Jakobson, who studied human language, was able to discern six basic functions that we use in varying proportions (see end of data sheet). From the six factors of the communication situation, he established a model of communication that highlights the six functions of language (in parenthesis) that match them.
The various types of texts produced by the written language will therefore be part of one of the six issues that will characterize them. Of course, chemically pure objects do not exist in nature, the texts are no exception to this finding. A given text will therefore use a priority project and we can find traces of one or more other functions.
Following classifications are identified six to eight types of text:
- recount events, stories: narrative
- describe objects, places, characters: descriptive text
- persuade, convince, assess: argumentative text
- inform, explain: explanatory or didactic text
- counselor, pray, order, want to act on the recipient: injunctive text or prescriptive
- express emotions, feelings: Expressive Text
- create an aesthetic effect, playing with words: rhetorical text
- report about: dialogical text
|Type of text||Narrative||Descriptive||Explanatory or
|the means to act,
defend a point of view
|create an aesthetic effect,
|About the Report|
passage of a novel (pause in the narrative),
passing a novel (pause in the narrative),
|Some clues||past simple narration, past tense,
imperfect usual and this narrative.
temporal markers action verbs
imperfect description of
space Benchmarks and location information.
|General truth of this
logical sequence Connectors
Absence index of the person
Reference to the 2 e person
marked presence of the passive voice
|General truth of this
hypotaxis, logical connectors argumentative
play on words
identification of stakeholders,
We can try to divide the types of texts in the various functions of language which they mainly use.
|Type of text||Descriptive||Descriptive||Rhetoric|
Each text type offers its own tone, that is to say, the characteristic elements that cause the recipient to a type of emotion, especially feeling. This register can be recognized by specific indices.
|Lyric||Melodious expression of intimate feelings of the author||Lexical fields of feeling
the presence of I / you
numerous modification devices 3
|Note its variant elegiac when feelings evoked are of the order of sadness.|
|Epic||Confrontation with forces beyond the human condition.
Representation of symbolic values of aristocratic warrior society.
This register aims to provoke admiration.
|Can be linked to the use of this register wonderful some of which are a separate register. This is the intervention of favorable or hostile magical forces, but still marked with the seal of the imagination.|
|Burlesque or against-epic||This register is characterized by the desired contrast between the subject and its treatment: either a heroic subject is lowered by a familiar style, even vulgar; is a trivial topic is covered by a formal style.
The desired effect is the questioning of gender conventions.
|Ribaldry, representation of the natural functions, shift, reification, research grotesque, absurd, cleaner look …|
|Fantastic||Sudden arrival of strange events in a realistic universe.||Lexical field of anxiety, doubt, madness, dreams, night.
evocative Processes, Fashion ambiguity, confusion, contradiction between the information provided by the senses and rationality of the individual.
|Pathetic||Statement that causes compassion for the suffering, a tenderness wearing the feelings of great intensity.||Lexical fields tears, pain, excess, many exclamations
metaphors and comparisons strong emotional charge
|Tragic||This register reflects the climax of a conflict that quartered the noble hero. It is marked by an inescapable destiny that acts as a blind mechanics. He leaves emerge a beyond cruel in a human condition marked by its finitude.||It uses the lexical fields of death, destructive passions, heroic feelings of defeat …|
|Comic||This registry seeks to cause amusement or laughter.
It uses puns, play sounds, repetitions, amusing comparisons, exaggeration, about absurd or familiar …
This register operates all the skill of deception.
|A variant can be added to it satirical caricature in which prevail and aggression ridiculous that we hope corrective virtue.
The irony is a subtle form of comic verve by subversion snapshots or social codes.
|Oratorical||Expression that seeks to persuade the reader, the processes within the enthusiasm or indignation.
Consensus building around values allowed by the group.
|Massive use of I / we / you
questions and apostrophes
presence of antitheses …
|The variant linked him polemic characterized by violent attacks, denigration, rejection …|
|The genres of narrative||Theater||The poem|
|About the adventures of one or more characters, such text is the short story (fable, story) developed to work (novel).
This text may look wonderful (storytelling) or likelihood (new or novel).
From the XVII th century, the novel is defined as a prose fiction, not only relating the adventures of one or more characters but also their psychological development.
From the end of the XVIII th century, the novel becomes a form convenient to host all kinds of stories and projects that can move away from simple adventure relationship.
|The theatrical text is primarily a text composed of two types of distinct enunciation: first dialogues between the characters, the other stage directions (stage directions) that specify the place, the time, the protagonists their reactions during the course of the action. The theatrical text is also governed by the double or triple utterance.
This text is designed for representation, it follows the scenic conventions: defined and delimited space, acting, lighting, cutting, scenery, the presence of an audience can be applied …
|Long treated as versification, poetry since the mid-nineteenth century, considered a work on language, the search for an aesthetic production. The poetic text is first defined as music. He plays with the rhythms, sounds, codified return of a number of elements.
The work plays on the meaning of unexpected resources of language. This language is characterized by the concentration of effects. Polysemy unexpected connections, associations of ideas, image figures serve to give the reader an emotion and a special pleasure.
Role Play Mystery Proverb Vaudeville …
|All codified forms:
1 coupling for: these are the words that refer to the situation of utterance, such as pronouns “I” and “you” (or “we” and “you”) that designate the sender and receiver of the statement, the demonstrative and possessive adjectives, adverbs of place them (“here” and “there”), time adverbs (“now”, “now” or “Yesterday”) … ↑
2 This feature is additional to the other in the texts worked so well that it can be found in all types of literary texts. ↑
3 Indices of opinion, judgment (verbs, adverbs, phrase indicating the degree of certainty), emotional marks (terms involving an emotion or feeling) and evaluative terms (vocabulary rewarding / deprecating, comparative / superlative …) which mark , more or less assertive, the management of a statement by him that the product.
• The language functions of language (Jakobson)
Referential function (or denotative)
The message is centered on the referent, the very subject of the message. The language describes the world; it is often the primary function of language.
Expressive function (or emotional)
The message is centered on the transmitter.
The message is centered on the recipient. It can be a message performative : the message may accrue a certain behavior in the listener.
The message is centered on language. The language used to talk about himself. Regular users of metalinguistic function of language are, for example, linguists. Other signs belong to this feature as “I mean …”, “that is to say,” “In other words …” etc.
The message is seeking to establish or maintain contact. “Hello? “” Is not it? “Etc. within the phatic function of language.
The message is centered on itself, on its aesthetic form. Language plays on its own code.
Note: several functions occur simultaneously in the language.
Model of communication
- Referent: what speaks the language (the world, my representation of the world).
- Issuer: the speaker.
- Receiver or receiver: one who receives the message.
- Message: the message itself, which is said by the sender to the recipient.
- Code: This is the instrument used to deliver the message (the language).